All about Exceptions

What are Exception? Well, exception are exceptions, they are not normal and suggest that they should be handled in order for you to proceed forward or else some can be severe that they can cripple your application.

What are the different types of exceptions?
Exceptions - are the not so serious types of problem in your code. Some are ones which are known and hence compiler wants you to handle them and take corrective action, these are called checked exceptions and some are unknown at compile time and are hence called unchecked exceptions. Exceptions like ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException are unchecked exception as they happen at runtime and hence are also termed as RuntimeException.
Errors - are more fatal, they can bring down your application, you cannot catch them. OutOfMemoryError is once such example, it means that JVM cannot allocate an object because it is out of memory.

Some points to remember about exceptions

  • All Exceptions are derived from java.lang.Exception or its subclass
  • You can create your own exception by extending the Exception or its subclass (for checked exceptions) or RuntimeException (for unchecked exceptions).
  • Compiler forces checked exceptions to be handled, you either handle them via try-catch block or mention that the method wont handle them and declare them in the throws clause.
  • Runtime exceptions may or may not be handled.
  • Catch blocks are ordered to catch exceptions from more specific to general, else the compiler will complain. Reason, the broader exception class can handle its sub-classes as well and hence it wont make sense to have a more specific exception (which is its subclass) later in the catch block. Ex a FileNotFoundException cannot be caught later in a catch block than IOException, as the earlier is a subclass of IOException.
  • Uncaught exceptions propagate back through the call stack, from the place it was generated to the first method that has the try-catch block, if its not handle anywhere not even in the main method then it will cause a JVM shutdown.
Some best practices with exceptions
  • Do not use Exceptions as flow controls, exceptions are not alternate routes of flow but are unwarranted scenarios which should be handled.
  • Exception should be thrown early for it to be more accurate and specific, reason the stack trace generated at that point can help you to get to the root cause of the exception as it will contain all the method calls that lead to the exception.
  • Handle exceptions at the appropriate layer. Allow the exceptions to pass through if it makes no sense to handle at a particular layer, don't swallow it with empty catch block or a system.out just because the compiler is cribbing at that point. Instead handle (try-catch) it at the appropriate layer where you can meaningfully recover from the exception and can continue or if not , log it using logging frameworks so that the root cause can be identified and fixed.
  • To create a Checked or Unchecked Exception is a very debatable topic. However if you can recover meaningfully from an exception then throw a checked exception. 
  • Do not create or throw exceptions unnecessarily, reason creating a stack trace is a costly process.


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